HTML tfoot tag

The tfoot element in HTML defines a set of rows summarizing the columns of the table. It is used within the table element and typically appears after the thead and tbody elements, although it is rendered at the bottom of the table. The term tfoot stands for table footer, which is meant to contain data that summarizes or concludes the content of the table. This section aims to provide comprehensive insights into the use, characteristics, and best practices for implementing the tfoot element in HTML documents.


The tfoot element is part of the table structure in HTML and is specifically designed to hold the footer content of a table. In the context of table markup, the footer does not refer to the bottom part of a webpage but to the bottom part of a table. The primary purpose of the tfoot is to contain summary information such as totals, averages, or other concluding data relevant to the columns of the table. It is important to note that the tfoot element should be used in conjunction with the thead and tbody elements to ensure a semantically structured table.


To properly use the tfoot element, it should be placed within a table element but after any tbody and thead elements if they are present. However, it is crucial to understand that despite its positioning in the code, the tfoot is rendered at the bottom of the table. This specific positioning helps in cases where the table is long and spans across multiple pages when printed. The tfoot ensures that the summary rows are displayed at the bottom of the table, making it easier for users to find the summarized information after viewing the table entries.

      <th>Column 1</th>
      <th>Column 2</th>
      <td>Data 1</td>
      <td>Data 2</td>
    <!-- More table rows -->
      <td>Summary 1</td>
      <td>Summary 2</td>


The tfoot element can use global attributes, which are attributes shared by all HTML elements. However, it does not have any specific attributes exclusive to it. This means customization and behavior modifications rely on global attributes such as class, id, style, and others. Additionally, through CSS, the appearance and positioning of the tfoot content can be styled just like any other table element.


Styling the tfoot element can be crucial in distinguishing the summary or conclusion part of your table from the other data presented. Customarily, footer rows might be styled with a different background color, font weight, or border to emphasize the summarization of the data it contains. Here is an example of how one might style the tfoot element using CSS:

tfoot {
  font-weight: bold;
  background-color: #f2f2f2;

This CSS rule will apply a bold font weight and a light grey background color to all tfoot elements, making them stand out from the rest of the table.

Accessibility Considerations

From an accessibility standpoint, using the tfoot element holistically as part of table structure improves the understanding of table data for screen reader users. It helps them recognize that the table includes summarizing rows apart from just the tabular content. When utilized properly, the tfoot element, in conjunction with the thead and tbody elements, provides a structured way to navigate and understand the data in a table, especially for individuals relying on assistive technologies.

Best Practices

  • Semantic Use: Always use tfoot for its intended purpose of summarizing or concluding the data of a table. Avoid using it merely for stylistic reasons.
  • Structure: Even though the tfoot element is rendered at the bottom, it should be coded directly after the thead and before the tbody element for clarity and consistency.
  • Styling: Leverage CSS to distinguish tfoot from the rest of the table while ensuring it complements the overall design of the table and the website.
  • Accessibility: Make sure the summary or concluding data within the tfoot is clear, meaningful, and aids in the understanding of the table’s content.

In conclusion, the tfoot element plays a crucial role in the structure of complex tables by encapsulating summary or concluding information. Proper usage, alongside thoughtful styling and consideration for accessibility, enhances the usability and comprehensibility of table data. Keeping these factors in mind ensures that the tfoot element serves its purpose effectively within web documents.