complex.h - Linux


The complex.h header file in C provides a set of macros and functions to manipulate complex numbers. It is primarily intended for mathematical and scientific applications that involve complex arithmetic.


The basic syntax for working with complex numbers in complex.h is:

#include <complex.h>

complex double a, b, c;
a = b + c; // Addition
a = b - c; // Subtraction
a = b * c; // Multiplication
a = b / c; // Division


There are no options or flags specifically associated with the complex.h header file.


The following example demonstrates the use of complex.h for complex arithmetic:

#include <complex.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
  complex double a = 3 + 4i;
  complex double b = 5 - 2i;
  complex double c;

  c = a + b;
  printf("Addition: %.2f + %.2fi\n", creal(c), cimag(c));

  c = a - b;
  printf("Subtraction: %.2f + %.2fi\n", creal(c), cimag(c));

  c = a * b;
  printf("Multiplication: %.2f + %.2fi\n", creal(c), cimag(c));

  c = a / b;
  printf("Division: %.2f + %.2fi\n", creal(c), cimag(c));

  return 0;

Common Issues

  • Incorrect Formatting of Complex Numbers: Ensure that complex numbers are correctly formatted as a + bi, where a is the real part, b is the imaginary part, and i is the imaginary unit.
  • Division by Zero: Avoid dividing by zero as it will result in an undefined value.


complex.h can be integrated with other numerical libraries, such as LAPACK or FFTW, to perform advanced mathematical operations. It can also be used in conjunction with visualization tools like MATLAB or Python’s matplotlib to plot complex data.

Related Commands

  • cmath – Mathematical function library for complex numbers
  • math.h – Mathematical function library for real numbers
  • fftw – Fast Fourier Transform library